Sports are a prime context for out-of-school learning. Sports have wide reach—millions of youth participate in organized sports in the United States, including school sports, club sports, and community leagues. Children and adolescents often learn important lessons from coaches and teammates, such as persistence, good sportsmanship, teamwork, decision making, and developing self-worth. Because of the important role of coaches and teammates in sport contexts, this entry focuses on social processes involving coaches and peers that promote learning and positive outcomes for youth, such as establishing a coach-created mastery motivational climate, engaging in autonomy-supportive coaching behaviors, and developing quality sport friendships. This entry discusses two prevalent social cognitive theories that can be used to explain the outcomes resulting from youth participation in sports, gives an overview ...

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