Race is a socially constructed classification of people on the basis of physical criteria. Historically, race was not determined by skin color but by class inequalities. However, during colonial expansion by European nations, race was defined in terms of skin color, where non-White individuals were afforded fewer privileges than their White counterparts. Ethnicity refers to the culture of people in a geographic region. Members of an ethnic group conform to some or all of the culture’s practices, including language, heritage, religion, and/or customs. Although race and ethnicity can overlap, they are distinct identities. Race and ethnicity are often associated with youths’ opportunities and outcomes in school and out of school. This is due in part to the fact that race, poverty, and social inequity are ...

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