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Juvenile Justice and School Discipline

State juvenile corrections systems in the United States confine approximately 70,000 youth in group homes, residential treatment centers, boot camps, wilderness programs, and county-run youth facilities—with 40% of the total being held in locked, long-term youth correctional facilities operated primarily by state governments or by private firms under contracts with states, according to a 2011 report by the Annie E. Casey Foundation. The overwhelming majority of confined youth in the United States are held for nonviolent offenses—offenses that do not pose clear threats to public safety. This entry discusses the impact of incarceration, zero-tolerance policies, and alternatives to detention programs, as well as the role of discipline in schooling more broadly, on the educational outcomes of today’s youth, particularly those of color.

Disproportionality

In nearly every state, ...

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