While many out-of-school learning trends are occurring globally and not just in North America, there are several particularly remarkable patterns in this subfield outside the United States. Two of these patterns are the focus of this entry: (1) the spread of U.S.-centric models of after-school and other out-of-school programming to other countries and (2) the rise and spread of private supplementary tutoring, often referred to as shadow education.

The Spread of U.S. Out-of-School Models

The travel of particular educational ideas and models from one country or region to another is hardly new—indeed, this trend, commonly referred to as “policy borrowing,” is one of the focal points of inquiry within the larger subfield of comparative and international education. The transfer of policies or forms of pedagogical knowledge, especially ...

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