In an increasingly globalized world, the need for people with expertise in multiple languages and cultures has never been greater, and English plays a particularly powerful though highly political and contested role in professional, academic, and social contexts across the globe. This entry discusses youth learning English as a second language and how out-of-school settings contribute to learning English as well as enriching the linguistic and cultural resources youth bring from their homes and communities. It focuses on youth in the United States who primarily speak a language other than English in their homes and communities and develop English as a “second” or “additional” language through in- and out-of-school settings. Although the term English as a second language (ESL) is used in this entry, English ...

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