Cultural–historical activity theory refers to a theory of human behavior and psychological characteristics that overcomes dichotomies that befall other theories, which oppose mind to matter and the individual to the collective. The theory was developed on the basis of Karl Marx’s theses that (a) life in society is essentially practical, (b) the essence of being human lies in the totality of societal relations in a person’s life, and (c) the concrete truth of human thinking reveals itself in everyday, societal practice. The theory also takes into account that life continuously evolves so that any form of activity requires understanding not only its cultural (societal) but also its historical context. The theory has been useful for understanding how people of all ages participate and learn in ...

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