Programming is the act of specifying instructions to produce an outcome or effect. Programming, or coding, typically refers to computer programming—specifying instructions, or code, in specialized languages to control computer activity. Computer programs are part of every aspect of modern life, from finance to transportation, to entertainment, and beyond. Although programming has long been perceived as a specialized ability, new tools have been designed for broader audiences to engage in programming, making computation more widely accessible. This entry describes programming in more detail and offers specific examples of programming tools and activities.

Code as Medium

Written text can be used to create artifacts such as poems, newspaper articles, and philosophical treatises, while video can be used to create artifacts such as music videos, television advertisements, and documentary ...

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