The field of citizen science evolved out of the nature study movement starting in the late 1800s, and then later initiatives from the 1950s aimed at increasing the public understanding of science, which places the origination and current practice of citizen science efforts squarely in the realm of out-of-school time. Citizen science is defined as scientific research carried out with support from members of the public. However, the forms and formats of citizen science are extremely varied. All variants of citizen science include members of the scientific research community working with members of the public to answer a research question. Citizen science clearly differs from traditional science because data are collected by citizen scientists who are volunteers, not just by professional scientists with high levels ...

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