A Middle Eastern country that borders the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, the Republic of Iran shares land borders with Turkey, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. Historically, from ancient times until the 20th century, Iran was known in the West as Persia and from the 550 BCE. until the Arab invasions of the 7th-century CE, it was the center of a vast empire that extended throughout most of the territory of the Middle East and ruled more than 40% of the world’s population. The official religion of Iran is Islam, with over 99% of the population describing themselves as followers. Iran is home to numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, with a current population of approximately 81 million people. ...

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