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France

French media have a rich heritage, having played an important role during several revolutions starting in 1789. Freedom of expression is rooted deeply within France’s core values. This entry provides an overview of media in France, including print, broadcast, and digital; explores the decline of French media globally; and highlights how contemporary events have breathed new life into the freedom of the press.

Print Media

The strong links to and the influence of the French state on the media can be traced back to Cardinal Richelieu, who created the Manufacture Royale de l’Imprimerie (Royal Printing Manufacture) in 1640, which still exists today as the Imprimerie nationale (National Printing Office). Pamphlets played an essential part in the Enlightenment period and during the French Revolution. Radical revolutionaries Jacques-René ...

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