Artificial intelligence (AI) is a research field within computer sciences that concentrates on developing human-like machine intelligence. Even though AI’s history has seen the rise and fall of different research paradigms and methods, contemporary AI includes data mining and machine learning among its principal techniques. Such techniques allow for the automatic identification of implicit patterns in past data (i.e., statistical correlations)—which are difficult for humans to infer—and the recognition of those patterns in future data (i.e., algorithmic predictions).

AI and machine learning systems power web searches, social media feeds, recommendation systems, speech and image recognition systems, virtual assistants, translation systems, online advertising, and spam filtering. Furthermore, AI and machine learning systems have been deployed in less evident ways across critical social domains such as finance (e.g., ...

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