Turkey’s media issues have been frequently framed in the context of deteriorating press freedom since the beginning of 2010s, as documented by several independent reports. However, Turkey’s expanding media economy and increasing user base in Internet-based technologies are also important parts of the mediascape. This entry begins with an overview of the size and scope of media in Turkey, addresses relations between policy elites and journalists, and describes the growing Internet media sector.

The Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. There were three military coups between 1950 and 1980, and during this time, Turkey’s human rights records were problematic. Still, Turkey was frequently seen as a model Muslim country due to its secular governance and its globally integrated ...

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