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Time-shifting refers to the practice of viewing television at any time other than its original broadcast. Historically, television has been tethered to a schedule. However, time-shifting technologies have significantly eroded television’s connection to linear time, with far-reaching consequences for the television industry and for television viewers.

Time-shifting was initially viewer-led, with recording technologies such as the VCR and later the DVR, allowing users to record programmes for later viewing. While some of these user-led technologies still remain, time-shifting has been thoroughly incorporated into the distribution practices of television providers, with linear television services offering streaming, playback, or anytime functionality, and a new wave of Internet television providers having left behind almost all linear scheduling practices. While the utility of time-shifting as a concept to explain contemporary ...

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