The Sender–Message–Channel–Receiver (SMCR) model denotes the process of communication that takes place among sender, message, channel, and receiver. The sender, or the source, is the main communicator, while the message refers to the content of the message being sent; the channel is the tool through which the message is sent, and the recipient of the message is the receiver. In most cases, the message is first encoded by the communicator, then sent through the channel, and decoded before being received. Hence, coding and decoding form a major part of the communication process.

This entry focuses on the communication process within the SMCR model and the main elements of communication. It discusses several communication theorists as well as several communication models that preceded the SMCR model, modifications ...

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