The field of journalism studies has given rise to a common formula in which newspaper journalism is referred to as the press, a concept resulting from a colligation (Brin, Charron, & de Bonville, 2004, p. 132), whereby separate facts are subsumed under a general concept, becoming a unit of axiomatic collective understanding. The press is accordingly viewed as a social institution—not in the modern sense of this term, as for example in the case of the institution of parliament in democracies, but as a symbolic platform for open debate on public matters and issues, consistent with the term’s classical meaning. In this perspective, the press, the media, the mass media, and journalism (often synonymous in public discourse) are historically associated with a certain symbolic power ...

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