Since Mongolia’s peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, far-reaching reforms have allowed for press freedoms that make the media sector one of the most free in the region. However, democracy, a precondition for a free and functioning press, is still in flux in a country that spent most of the last three centuries under the sway of one or the other of its two powerful neighbors, China and Russia. Journalists and media professionals still face many challenges, and the sector as a whole lacks the independence it needs.

This entry explores the development of mass media in Mongolia—print, broadcast, and new media—in the context of the development of Mongolia as a fledgling democracy. It looks first of all at its beginnings in the early 1920s in what ...

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