Media diplomacy (MD) refers to uses of the mass media by officials to send signals, apply pressure on states and nonstate actors, build confidence, advance negotiations, and mobilize public support for agreements. MD is often confused with public diplomacy (PD): a communication process states, nonstate actors, and organizations employ to influence the policies of a foreign government by influencing its citizens. MD differs from PD in several important aspects. It addresses policy issues, while PD creates the public climate around these issues. MD primarily targets leaders, while PD primarily targets public opinion. In MD, the media are the only instrument; in PD, the media are only one of several instruments such as culture, international exchanges, nation branding, foreign aid, international law, and diaspora relations. Finally, ...

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