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Racism refers to a belief that people belong to different racial groups based on their biological traits and that these differences make some races superior to others. Racism is used to justify, based on race, patterns of oppression and to allocate power to some and restrict or deny it to others. Racism is relevant to marriage, families, and couples counseling because the macrostructure of racial stratification in the United States, with White, mainly European Americans at the top and ethnic minorities below, impacts people’s daily interactions and their personal and professional relationships. In this entry, the history of racial stratification in the United States is described. It is important to understand the history because it helps explain the current racial hierarchy. Next, an explanation ...

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