Late childhood and early adolescence mark an important turning point in the lives of individuals. During this time, young people begin to rely less on their primary caretakers as they look to achieve a greater sense of self. A certain amount of noncompliance toward authority figures signifies a healthy level of identity formation; however, an overabundance of obstinate behavior may signal the presence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) defines ODD as the consistent presence of disobedient, defiant, and provocative behavior. This behavior exceeds what would be expected from the individual based on their current stage of development. Though ODD goes beyond typical mischief or rebellion, behaviors do not present as overtly aggressive, violate the law, or infringe on ...

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