Mindfulness can be defined as the practice of recognizing and acknowledging one’s emotions and sensations, whether painful or pleasurable, in the moment and without judgment. The three key components of mindfulness are (1) a present-moment focus, (2) paying attention to one’s physical and emotional feelings, and (3) approaching these with openness and acceptance (i.e., not judging or evaluating these experiences but rather acknowledging their existence). Mindfulness is a practice that has been applied for many purposes. For instance, it has been used in relaxation and meditation practices. Mindfulness is commonly associated with Buddhism, but other spiritual ideologies, especially those that practice meditation, also emphasize mindfulness. When mindfulness is discussed in the field of counseling, it is often associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), since CBT integrates ...

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