Deception is the intentional creation of a false belief in another. It is an action or verbal statement made with the intention to mislead another. Animals engage in unintentional deception, such as mimicry and camouflage, and there have been several reported cases of nonverbal deceptive behavior in apes, but verbal deception appears to be largely a human behavior that emerges in the preschool years and develops through childhood into adolescence. Motivations for deceiving change with age, as does the ability to deceive successfully. The ability to deceive is closely related to developing cognitive abilities and seems to explain why some children and adults are able to successfully deceive while others are not. Social environments and norms also have a role in the expression and frequency ...

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