Creative potentials are universal and shared by everyone. There is, however, change as the individual ages. There are slumps and peaks in children and adolescents, for example, and changes in middle-age and later adulthood as well. This entry focuses on common changes that occur in adult creativity. Explanations for these changes are noted as well. One key premise is that creativity has requirements: originality (also called novelty) and effectiveness (also called fit, appropriateness, or usefulness). It is appropriate when discussing creativity in the East to also include authenticity and creativity that is tied to self-enlightenment.

A useful framework for understanding creativity was proposed 50 years ago. It distinguishes four specific approaches or foci: personality, process, place, and product. An update proposed in 2008 is even more ...

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