The human brain includes billions of neurons that are anatomically connected into a vast and complex wiring network known as the human connectome. This communication network is wired to promote coordinated and dynamic patterns of neural interaction thought to underlie cognitive and other brain functions. A rough scaffold of the brain’s wiring diagram is completed early in life, but alterations in the strength of individual connections and associated changes in the connectome’s overall wiring organization continue throughout the lifespan.

These developments may be disturbed by deviant patterns of connectome formation in the context of neurodevelopmental disorders or age-related deterioration of anatomical connectivity. This entry provides an overview of insights into the brain’s wiring organization, discussing the origins of the term connectome and how it can be ...

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