Civic engagement refers to individual and collective actions aimed at identifying and addressing issues of public concern in society. Civic engagement can include efforts to directly address an issue in society, working with others toward solving a problem in a community, or attempts to influence the political system or its institutions. Therefore, it can take different forms, such as volunteering, involvement in organizations, and electoral participation.

Involvement of citizens in civic and political life is essential for the social cohesion and renewal of societies. Democratic systems require their citizens to be informed and actively involved in society to cultivate the values (e.g., responsibility, freedom, tolerance), respect the norms, and promote the practices (e.g., deliberation) that sustain the social order. This entry describes some historical changes in ...

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