Caloric restriction (CR), a form of dietary intervention that lowers caloric consumption while maintaining proper nutrition, is the only intervention so far known to influence the processes involved in both primary and secondary aging. Primary aging, the changes in tissue structure and function that occurs apart from disease and lifestyle, is the main determinant of maximal lifespan.

Secondary aging, on the other hand, is the main determinant of average lifespan and elucidates the decline in tissue structure and function that occurs as a direct result of external influences, such as noncommunicable diseases and social behaviors such as smoking or physical activity habits. This entry covers the known effects of CR in nonhuman animals and humans, the history of CR, and important research detailing the impact of ...

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