Bullying is intentional, unprovoked aggression that occurs in a context of power imbalance. The aggressive behavior is generally repeated and operates within a relationship of abuse. It can take various forms—physical, verbal, or relational—and can be carried out face-to-face or through electronic means. Bullying behavior can be observed across all age groups—from early childhood to senior years—and in various settings—the family, the school, the workplace, prisons, and residential care.

It has been identified in multiple cultures and therefore appears to be a universal phenomenon. Although it primarily involves a relationship between a perpetrator and a victim, it is often a group process that can be understood only with an examination of the social context. This entry first describes the emergence of bullying and age-related changes in ...

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