Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and impairing psychological disorder that begins in childhood and often persists into adulthood. ADHD is characterized by developmentally inappropriate hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention, beginning before the age of 12, that result in impairments across multiple settings, including home, work, or school. Genetic, neural, and environmental factors contribute to the developmental course of ADHD.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) specifies three distinct presentations: predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I), predominantly hyperactive/impulsive (ADHD-HI), and combined (ADHD-C). Although an ADHD diagnosis remains fairly stable across development, the presentation of ADHD is less stable and may change over time. Across cultures, clinicians and parents seem to agree on the core inattentive and hyperactive symptoms of ADHD; however, prevalence rates and clinical thresholds ...

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