There are important differences in many aspects of human functioning from birth to death. Thus, humans are administered tests from the moment of birth (such as the Apgar score, which measures basic neurological and health function of a neonate) to advanced age (such as assessment for dementia to determine level of care and assistance or supervision). Tests measure diverse aspects of human functioning, including behavior (e.g., reaction time, strength, coordination), emotion or mood, and cognitive abilities (e.g., intelligence, memory, attention).

Tests also use diverse methodologies. For example, assessment of emotion or mood may include self-report questionnaires, ratings of behavioral observations, or face-to-face administration of a structured interview. Assessment of behavior and cognitive functioning is best conducted with measures of actual performance but could include face-to-face ...

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