Aggression is any behavior intended to harm another individual. This entry focuses on aggression directed toward peers—that is, nonrelated individuals of similar ages (excluding aggression between intimate partners, from parents to children, and toward siblings or animals). The entry describes developmental outcomes and trajectories of aggression, risk factors for aggression, forms and functions of aggression, and efforts to intervene to prevent or reduce aggression.

Outcomes and Trajectories of Aggression

Aggressive children and adolescents face several short- and long-term negative consequences. Aggressive children are often disliked by their normative (nonaggressive) peers and affiliate with delinquent peers who may solidify and expand the child’s antisocial tendencies. Aggressive children are also often disengaged from school, either by their own choice or through negative teacher reactions, suspensions, and expulsions. These negative ...

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