Since its inception, developmental psychology has been interested in the interplay between the biological and the environmental influences that shape human development. The adoption of children by parents with whom they have no genetic ties offers a unique opportunity to deepen the study of these Genes × Environment (G × E) interactions for a better understanding of developmental processes.

Moreover, given that a growing number of adopted children become members of their new families after months or years of serious developmental adversity, adoption also provides an opportunity to analyze the extent to which more nurturing care protects and stimulates recovery from prior developmental alterations. This entry discusses (a) the study of G × E interactions using adoption designs and (b) how children recover after initial adversity, ...

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