The Tanner stages are a common tool for measuring physical changes of pubertal development. The Tanner Scale of pubertal changes, commonly known as the Tanner stages, was established in 1955 by British pediatrician James Tanner. Tanner defined stages of physical development for key pubertal changes based on the synchronized development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics, like visible changes of the breasts, genitals, and pubic hair growth. The stages range from 1 to 5, with 1 representing no development, or prepubertal status, and 5 representing mature adult status. Each stage describes different levels of growth in the continuous process of pubertal development from childhood to early adulthood. Tanner staging remains a common tool and is the basis for subsequent measures but has been criticized for ...

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