Whether within or outside of the framework of institutionalized religion, spiritual development refers to a process of increased depth of awareness, connection to the transcendent, and search for ultimate meaning as well as engagement in spiritual practices. Spirituality is regarded as a significant and universal aspect of human experience, but relatively little attention has been paid within established life-span theories and models to the study of spiritual development as integral to human normative development. Throughout history, and across cultures and traditions, spirituality has played an integral role in individuals’ lives, and in the overall human experience. In some countries, such as Indonesia, Pakistan, Egypt, Iran, and the United States of America, where divinity is largely present in the culture and discourse, between 90% and 100% ...

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