This entry describes second careers across the life span, which may take the form of employment in an entirely new type of work or an entirely new industry, or simply switching jobs but continuing to work for the same employer. Declining job security, increasing life expectancy, automation, and new technologies mean many people are suddenly looking for second, third, or even fourth careers. This second-career pattern can happen in early adulthood, midlife, or in the traditional retirement years and may involve a number of unrelated or related shifts in jobs, employers, and industries. For example, the workforce is aging, and growing numbers of older workers are retiring from their career jobs both earlier and later than the typical retirement age of 65. Given increasing life ...

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