Migration has always been part of the human condition. The UN Population Fund estimated that in 2015, 3.3% of the population, around 244 million people, lived outside their country of birth. These foreign-born are not the only immigrants. If subsequent generations are added to first-generation migrants, numbers become much bigger. According to UN estimates of international immigration, in 2015, countries in Western Europe had a large percentage of immigrants (up to the third generation). Australia has more than twice as many. Large metropolises in Western countries are home to people from various ethnic descents. Cities such as Chicago harbor people from most countries on the globe.

Migration leads to intercultural encounters. The process in which cultural groups come into continuous prolonged contact with some adjustment in ...

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