Reasoning refers to coordinated inference that is deliberate or intentional in nature and norm based. Thus, reasoning involves some manner of organization across inferences. A single isolated inference does not necessarily involve reasoning per se. Because it is deliberate or intentional, reasoning differs from acts of thinking that are automatic or intuitive. One key aspect of this intentionality is a relatively conscious conformity to norms or standards of sound reasoning. When engaged in reasoning, an individual is deliberately conforming to some set of norms or standards because of an appreciation of the benefits that derive from such conformity. Norms sanction particular kinds of inferences. Deductive and inductive reasoning, for example, involve very different norms or standards. When individuals engage in deductive or formal reasoning, they ...

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