Parenting by Lesbians and Gay Men: Outcomes for Children and Youth

Children being raised by lesbian, gay (LG), and other sexual minority (bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning; BTQ) parents is not a new phenomenon. But, it is only in the past three decades or so that self-identified nonheterosexual adults have been openly parenting children. Prior to this period, social stigma and discrimination related to an individual’s sexual minority status, as well as criminalization of homosexual behavior, typically forced nonheterosexual parents to hide their sexual identity and orientation. Toward the end of the 20th century, however, societal attitudes about homosexuality began to change, not only in the United States but also in most other Western countries. One of the changes involved growing public acceptance of children being raised by nonheterosexual parents. This entry focuses on pathways to ...

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