The parent–child relationship is undeniably one of the most influential forces in development. Parents face the task of ensuring their offspring’s physical survival, social growth, emotional maturation, and cognitive development. Notably, the period of childhood is longer in humans than in all nonhuman primates, providing children with the time necessary to develop the complex cognitive, motor, and social skills required for human survival. This extended childhood period means that children depend heavily on the support of their caregivers to meet their developmental needs, making parent–child interactions one of the most vital engines of development.

In light of the developmental significance of parenting for human development, scientists have devoted much attention to understanding the nature, antecedents, and consequences of parenting. Which aspects of parenting matter for child ...

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