Neuroendocrinology is a field that focuses on the interactions between the human nervous and endocrine systems. Each of the two systems is capable of modulating the function of the other. Interactions between these systems have profound effects on physiologic processes of the human body. In particular, the hypothalamus plays a critical role in regulating the secretion of pituitary gland hormones that have broad systemic effects involving homeostasis, metabolism, energy regulation, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, and reproduction. This entry reviews the interactions between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and then provides an overview of the key roles pituitary hormones play in human physiology. The entry then overviews some of the diseases involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland system that can develop during the human life ...

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