Neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) are marked by a significant decline from a previously attained level of cognitive functioning. NCDs differ from neurodevelopmental disorders because the cognitive deficits are neither seen at birth nor interfere with development. Although NCDs are most prevalent in adults over 65 years old, individuals can be diagnosed throughout adulthood. An individual is diagnosed with an NCD when the individual exhibits cognitive declines with impairment in at least one of the following cognitive domains: complex attention, executive ability, learning and memory, language, perceptual motor, or social cognition.

The diagnostic category of NCDs includes major NCD and mild NCD, the distinction being based on two dimensions: (a) the severity of the cognitive decline and (b) whether the individual can function independently in daily life. A ...

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