The term mood disorders encompasses both depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. The common feature across these disorders is significant disturbance in emotional experience that may cause relationship distress, family conflict, and/or diminished performance at work or school. Depressive disorders are characterized by extended periods of sad mood or diminished interest or pleasure. Bipolar disorders are characterized by periods of persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, but the vast majority of individuals with a bipolar disorder also experience depressive episodes. Although mood disorders can emerge in childhood or adolescence, the highest risk for these episodes is in emerging adulthood (ages 18–24 years) into early adulthood. Some individuals only experience a single mood episode, but mood disorders often recur through adulthood. Although risk diminishes with age, the ...

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