This entry describes mandatory retirement: the involuntary retirement of an individual by law or industry regulation upon reaching a specific age, most often between 60 and 65. The lifestyle changes associated with retirement mean the concept must be considered as affecting the individuals over their life span. This entry reviews the brief history of retirement systems, including the establishment of mandatory retirement and the invalidation of mandatory retirement practices, examines different retirement policies in different countries, and discusses future directions for mandatory retirement.

A Brief History of Retirement Systems

Retirement is often defined as a voluntary exit from the workforce that is primarily attributed to age. Throughout history, economic, cultural, and political variations have caused the nature of retirement to change over time. With the rise of ...

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