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Low- and Middle-Income Countries

The World Bank country classification system determines gross national income per capita ranges, according to which countries are classified as low-income, lower middle–income, upper middle–income, high-income, or high-income countries that are also members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Low- and middle-income countries (especially low- and lower middle–income countries) tend to face widespread poverty; have weak political, institutional, and administrative capacity; have low levels of human capital; and often struggle with providing basic social services. Poor populations in low- and lower middle–income countries often face poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions with high risk of parasitic infections (e.g., mosquito-borne illnesses like malaria, waterborne parasites such as schistosomiasis), while lacking access to basic health care, including prenatal care and skilled birth attendance. These countries ...

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