Inequality refers to variations in the well-being and standard of living between individuals or groups of individuals within a population. Inequality is visible at different levels, within and between countries and between all individuals at the global level, and manifests itself through different economic, social, and political dimensions such as income, education, health, and nutrition. Inequality within and between countries is often considered in terms of income, wealth, or consumption. A commonly used measure of inequality in a country is the Gini coefficient, which measures the dispersion of income and other attributes on a scale of 0 (signaling complete equality) to 1 (indicating total inequality).

Patterns of inequality are based on circumstances beyond the individual’s control, such as ethnicity, gender, location of birth, household wealth, and ...

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