Indirect aggression, also termed social aggression or relational aggression, is a form of hostile behavior that is commonly used by females and males across the life span. Unlike physical aggression and verbal aggression, which are displayed in an obvious and direct manner such as hitting someone or calling someone a name, indirect aggression tends to be circuitous in nature, such as taking the form of getting others to dislike a person, excluding somebody from the peer group, giving someone the “silent treatment,” or spreading rumors that often devalue a person’s appearance or besmirch the person’s (most often her) sexual reputation. Although indirect aggression tends to be used covertly, it can be used overtly such as using derisive body and facial gestures to make someone feel ...

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