Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system in the body, which protects an individual from various infections. HIV particularly affects the CD4 cells of the immune system, making the individual with HIV more vulnerable to getting infections or infection-related cancers. If left untreated, HIV can progress to its final stage, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Although there is no cure for HIV, it can be controlled through consistent use of medicines called antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the individual will need to manage the illness throughout life. HIV is transmitted through body fluids, and the transmission routes include unprotected sex, mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy and child-birth, and blood transfusion. Due to the chronic nature of HIV, it impacts individuals throughout their lifespan, but the developmental impact ...

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