Geography is the study of how where in the world someone or a social group is located can affect how their lifespan develops. Typically, such study is done in one of two different ways. In the first approach, different places are viewed as locations or areas with different environmental, demographic, economic, and cultural features that may cluster together but that are also connected through flows of people, things, money, and diseases. This is a geometric or gridlike conception of how terrestrial space can bring things together but also separate them. Different places have different morbidities for different diseases, for example, because people with different genetic and dietary characteristics just happen to live clustered in different places.

For the second approach, the place itself has a mediating ...

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