Executive Control

Executive control (EC) refers to cognitive processes that control goal-directed behavior. As the word control suggests, EC is a higher order process because it exerts control over other cognitive processes. In this respect, the work done by EC can be compared to that of a chief executive officer or orchestra conductor. Similar to these, EC has a leadership role and is situated on top of a hierarchy. It is crucial for decision-making, goal setting, planning how to accomplish the goal, assigning tasks and duties to other cognitive processes, monitoring, performance evaluation, and, if necessary, correction of any of the steps along the process of goal attainment.

EC, however, is recruited only in particular situations. For many everyday situations, we do not need EC because we can ...

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