The gender binary system of Western culture is based on a masculine–feminine dichotomy. While the masculine gender consists of cultural and social attributes, behaviors, norms, and roles associated with being boys and men, the feminine gender consists of the cultural and social elements associated with being girls and women. Masculinity stereotypes refer to the categorically particular and fixed expectations and ideas pertaining to attributes, behaviors, norms, and roles of a biologically sexed male within cultural contexts. These stereotypes emerge through processes of gender assignment, identity, roles, and attribution. The dichotomous relationship between masculine and feminine positions the stereotypical characteristics of masculinity in opposition to femininity. When boys or men enact stereotypically feminine characteristics, they violate social and cultural expectations and face negative outcomes. These ...

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