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In many cultures across the globe, individuals believe that being heterosexual and cisgender (i.e., the assigned sex at birth aligns with an individual’s gender identity) are the only normal and acceptable expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity. Often these heterosexist and cisgenderist cultural mores are strengthened by gender role expectations, especially in patriarchal societies, where men hold more power than women. For instance, feminine gender role expectations may include having long hair, wearing feminine clothing, and behaving in a certain manner (e.g., submissive, caretakers) whereas masculine gender role expectations tend to be equated with strength, financial responsibility, and being the primary decision maker. Moreover, heterosexism is often coupled with homonegativity (i.e., bias and prejudice toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals) and transnegativity (i.e., ...

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