Japan in the 21st century enjoys a respectable degree of free speech. Its constitution guarantees freedom of the press, acknowledging that journalistic practices contribute to the advancement of democracy. Yet certain restrictions of press freedom are in effect. The majority of journalism in Japan is a for-profit business, and the market is large and competitive. The development of communication technology accompanies the innovative means to distribute and receive information that supports journalistic practices, and for risk management and disaster prevention. Journalism in Japan may be characterized by the prevailing influence of national newspapers and Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK, Japan Broadcasting Corporation).

Since 2008, the population of Japan has been steadily decreasing and in November 2019 was estimated around 126.1 million people. In the census of 2017, ...

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